post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

According to the DSM-V, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) manifests when a person experiences an actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violence by either of the following ways:

  • Directly experiencing the traumatic event

  • Witnessing others involved in traumatic events

  • Learning that a significant other was involved in a violent or accidental traumatic event

  • Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to details of traumatic events


People suffering from PTSD may experience the following symptoms related to the traumatic event.

  • Recurring and distressing memories or dreams related to the traumatic event

  • Feel as though the traumatic event is happening again in the present

  • Fear objects/people/places that remind him/her of the traumatic event

  • Intense physical reactions to cues that symbolise the traumatic event

  • Example: Difficulty breathing

                 Increased heart rate



                 Nausea etc.

  • Avoidance of memories, thoughts and feelings that are related to the traumatic event

  • Avoidance of reminders of the distressing event

  • Changes in thought process and mood due to the distressing event 

Examples: Forgetting an important detail about the distressing event 

                   Adopting a negative view of people and the world

                   Self blame for experiencing the traumatic event

  • Marked change in arousal after the distressing event

Examples: Irritable or angry outbursts towards people or objects

                  Reckless or self destructive behaviour


                  Problems with concentration 

                  Sleep disturbance