Generalised anxiety disorder

According to the DSM-V, generalised anxiety disorder manifests as uncontrollable, excessive anxiety and worry about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance).


The anxiety and worry is usually accompanied by feelings of

  • Restlessness or feelings of being on edge

  • Being easily fatigued 

  • Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank 

  • Irritability 

  • Muscle tension 

  • Sleep disturbance

Social anxiety disorders (social phobia)

According to the DSM-V, Social Anxiety disorder manifests as a marked fear of anxiety about being scrutinised or judged by others during social interactions, and/or when having to perform in front of others.

Prior to or during Social interaction the individual may experience the following

  • Fears that he/she will be evaluated negatively (humiliated of embarrassed)  

  • Fear of displaying anxious behaviour

  • Avoidance of the social situation or endure it with intense fear or anxiety

NB. The fear of social situation is often out of proportion to the actual danger that it poses.

panic disorder

According to the DSM-V, panic disorder manifests when a person experiences recurrent and unexpected panic attacks.

Panic attacks are usually experienced as sudden intense fear or discomfort which is characterised by the following:

  • Disruption in normal heart rate

  • Sweating 

  • Trembling or shaking 

  • Perceived difficulty breathing or choking 

  • Chest pain or discomfort

  • Nausea or abdominal stress

  • Feeling dizzy, light headed or faint

  • Chills or heat sensations

  • Numb or tingling sensations

  • Feelings of unreality

  • Fear of losing control or going crazy

  • Fear of dying 

The panic attacks are usually followed by

  • Excessive worry of experiencing another panic attack or

  • Avoiding certain situations that may cause a panic attack.